Better interop for NFS/SMB file share mode/reservation

Amir Goldstein amir73il at
Fri Feb 8 14:45:46 UTC 2019

On Fri, Feb 8, 2019 at 3:10 PM Jeff Layton <jlayton at> wrote:
> On Fri, 2019-02-08 at 13:20 +0200, Amir Goldstein wrote:
> > Hi Bruce,
> >
> > I have been following you discussion with Volker Lendecke
> > on the samba technical mailing list [1] and have had discussed
> > this issue with Volker myself as well.
> >
> > I decided to start this new thread to bring some kernel developers
> > in the loop and to propose an idea that takes a somewhat
> > different approach to the "interop" approaches I have seen
> > so far. "interop" in this context often means consistency of file
> > lock states between samba and nfs server, but I am referring
> > to the stronger sense of interop with local filesystem on the server.
> >
> > You pointed to Pavel Shilovsky's O_DENY* patches [2] as a possible
> > solution to interop of NFS Share Reservation and SMB Share Mode
> > with local filesystems.
> > Some of the complaints on this approach were (rightfully) concerned
> > about DoS and the prospect of plaguing Linux with Windows server
> > "files left open" issues.
> >
> > My idea comes from the observation that Windows server
> > administrators can release locked files that were left open by clients.
> > I suppose that an NFS server admin can do the same?
> The Linux kernel has no mechanism for this (aside from sending a SIGKILL
> to lockd, which makes it drop all locks). Solaris did have a tool for
> this at one point (and probably still does).
> It's a little less of a problem now than it used to be with NFS, given
> the move to NFSv4 (which has lease-based locking). If you have
> misbehaving clients, you just kick them out and their locks eventually
> go away. v3 locks can stick around in perpetuity however, so people have
> long wanted such a tool on Linux as well.

In a nut shell, I think my proposal is that samba will do something
similar and request leases from the kernel instead of trying to
enforce real mandatory locks.

> > That realization makes "share access" locks (a.k.a. MAND_LOCK)
> > not so very different from oplocks (leases/delegations).
> > As long as samba and nfsd cooperate nicely with MAND_LOCK
> > semantics, we don't really have to force local filesystems
> > to obay MAND_LOCK semantics. If the file servers take leases
> > on local filesystems, they will not get exclusive write access for
> > files already open for write on local filesytem and same for read.
> >
> I think this last statement isn't correct (if I'm parsing it correctly).
> If a file is already open for write, then you just don't get a lease
> when you try to request one. Ditto for write leases if it's already open
> for read.

I think you miss read what I miss wrote ;-)
As the title of this thread states, I am talking about the first case
of acquiring an exclusive or read shared access to file at open time.
It may be the fact that samba currently calls flock(LOCK_MAND)
that is the source for confusion.

Open failure is the expected behavior if file is already open for
write (or read) on local filesystem, so my suggestion is:
- Server opens the file and request a lease based of desired share mode
- If file server got the lease, client gets the file handle
- Otherwise, client gets an open failure

> > On local file access on the server that violates the share mode,
> > the file server acts as a grumpy washed out administrator that
> > automatically grants any lock revoke ticket after timeout.
> >
> Devil's advocate:
> Is this situation any better than just teaching the NFS/SMB servers to
> track these locks out of band? Both samba and most NFS servers respect
> share/deny mode locks, but only internally -- they aren't aware of the
> others'. We could (in principle) come up with a mechanism to track these
> that doesn't involve plumbing them into the kernel.

That would be a prerequisite to my suggested solution, as I wrote:
"As long as samba and nfsd cooperate nicely with LOCK_MAND..."
That means the two file servers cooperate on the share mode locks
and try to figure out if there are outstanding leases before opening
a file that will break those leases.

> That said, coherent locking is best done in the kernel, IMO...


> > This model may not fit use cases where "real" interop with
> > local filesystem is needed, but compared to the existing
> > solution (no interop at all) it is quite an improvement.
> >
> > Furthermore, short of SMB DENY_DELETE, we may not even
> > need to change any kernel APIs.
> > The addition of O_DENY* open flags can make programming
> > easier, but taking a lease on an open file is still safe enough
> > to implement share reservation (no?).
> >
> > Satisfying DENY_DELETE could be more tricky, but perhaps
> > the existing SILLYRENAME interface of==between knfsd and vfs
> > could be somehow utilized for this purpose?
> >
> > I though of bringing this up as a TOPIC for LSF/MM, but wanted
> > to consult with you first. I am sure that you or Jeff can do a better
> > job than me in enumerating the "interop" file lock issues that
> > could be discussed in filesystems track forum.
> >
> > Thoughts? Explanation why this idea is idiotic?
> I think it's not a single idea. There are really two different aspects
> to this given that we're really talking about two different types of
> locks in SMB. I think you have to consider solving these problems
> separately:
> 1) the ability to set a (typically whole-file) share/deny lock
> atomically when you open a file. This is necessary for coherent
> share/deny lock semantics. Note that these are only enforced open()
> time.
> 2) mandatory locking (forbidding reads and writes on a byte range when
> there is a conflicting lock set).

I was only trying to address the first problem (small steps...).

> The first could (probably) be solved with something like what Pavel
> proposed a few years ago...or maybe we just wire up O_EXLOCK and

Nice. I wasn't aware of those BSD flags.

> This seems like a fine idea (in principle) but it needs someone to drive
> the work forward. You'll also likely be consuming a couple of O_* flags,
> which could be tough sell (unless you come up with another way to do
> it).

Once I know the obstacles to watch out from, I can drive this work.
Thing is, I am not convinced myself that any new O_ flags are needed.

How about this (for samba, knfsd is simpler):
- pfd = open(filename, O_PATH)
- flock(pfd, LOCK_MAND) (for file servers interop)
- vfs checks no conflicting LOCK_MAND locks (like patch you once posted)
- open(filename, O_RDWR) (and verify st_ino like samba does)
- Request lease (for local fs interop)
- check_conflicting_open() is changed to use inode_is_open_for_read()
  instead of checking d_count and i_count.
- we already have i_readcount, just need to remove ifdef CONFIG_IMA
- On lease break (from local fs), break client oplocks and invalidate
file handle on server


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